Difference between Socialism and Communism

Socialism and Communism may be used very often for the same purpose but they both have differences. Main idea and ideology behind is they are against capitalism. They both promote equality and seek to eliminate social classes. Thus try to form society in which people have equal rights equal wealth. Community produce wealth, resources according to there needs.

 You can think about a society which is following these basic principles. Now imagine how this kind of society will look like. We all know that Soviet Union(Now Russia) were strict follower of these principles. But why things changed now. And why Soviet Union people revolted against the government because of extreme poverty. 

That means these principles of socialism and communism failed at long run. They failed to sustain there society. Difference between Socialism and Communism-Like communism, socialism also focus on equality. As we discussed above but here(Socialism) workers earn wages and can spend it wherever they want. While government owns and operates the means of production. These are the basic things to understand in this topic. You can further read extensively from here.

Thus concluding the differences between both of them it can be said that socialism provide incentives also. Like in UK basic needs such as healthcare to everyone regardless of their time or effort at work. Same in our India, government provide subsidies, pension to unorganized workers, other welfare schemes. These are basic differences between Socialism and Communism. And they both are opposite to capitalism obviously.

What is socialist democracy?

Democratic socialism is an economic, social, and political ideology holding that while both the society and economy should be run democratically, they should be dedicated to meeting the needs of the people as a whole, rather than encouraging individual prosperity as in capitalism. Democratic socialists advocate the transition of society from capitalism to socialism through existing participatory democratic processes, rather than revolution as characterized by orthodox Marxism. Universally-used services, such as housing, utilities, mass transit, and health care are distributed by the government, while consumer goods are distributed by a capitalistic free market. 

The latter half of the 20th century saw the emergence of a more moderate version of socialist democracy advocating a mixture of socialist and capitalist control of all means of economic production supplemented by extensive social welfare programs to help provide the basic needs of the people.

What are pros and cons of socialism

Pros and Cons of Socialism

Examples of Socialism: The former Soviet Union is an example of a socialist system. Cuba is an example of a socialist nation. Its economy is state run and it lacks a stock exchange. Healthcare and education are all completely managed and administered by the government.

Question: Is India a Socialist country? Answer: No, India is not a socialist country. Why? Even India’s preamble of constitution has the word ‘Socialist’ so why India is not a socialist country. Read further to find out.

What does Socialism in India mean?

India’s democratic principle are bit different from other country constituion. For example: In India we follow positive secularism (different from other countries). Socialism in India is also different from other countries. Lets first understand what is Indian way of socialism.

Russia was a socialist country right? (USSR-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). USSR(old Russian federation) followed communistic socialism. Communistic socialism is different from democratic socialism. In communistic socialism state control all resources and distribute equally among all individuals. While in India we follow democraric socialism. In democratic socialism some sectors are reserved by government ( like railway, atomic sector, etc) and other sectors are controlled by private sector like in mixed economy. Our socialist principle got diluted after LPG(Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization) reforms in 1991.

In India it means providing all people food security, full employment, universal access to education, health and housing. It means the economic, political and social empowerment of the people by vastly improving the living conditions of workers, peasants and the hitherto marginalized sections. It means, first and foremost, that people’s power would be supreme. That democracy, democratic rights and civil liberties would be inseparable elements of the socialist juridical, political and social order. Under bourgeois democracy, illusionary formal rights may exist but the majority of people are denied the capacities to exercise these rights. Under socialism, democracy will be based on the economic, educational and social empowerment of all people, the fundamental and essential requirement for the continuous deepening and development of the quality of human life, on whose foundations socialist democracy will flourish. Under socialism, the right to dissent, the freedom of expression and plurality of opinion will flourish with the aim of strengthening socialism under proletarian statehood.

It means the ending of caste oppression by abolishing the caste system. It means the equality of all linguistic groups and equal development of all languages. It means the true equality of all minorities and marginalised sections and ending gender oppression.

India in its modified socialist pursuit relied on three pillars of development strategy–


  • planning for rapid industrial and agricultural growth which was not under the absolute control of State.
  • a public sector to develop strategic industries, which was to progressively become a self-sustained profit-making sector.
  • a mixed economy- Mixed economy was preferred earlier due to lack of adequate resources, but the private sector was to work under a broad framework of planning.

How does Indian socialism is different from other countries?


  • It differed from core socialism as it went for a mixed economy rather than complete government control, the public sector had hold on only core industries, industrialists participated in planning (Bombay Plan), emphasis was on industrialisation along with agriculture and the aim was to make the public sector a profit-generating sector rather than being just a welfare tool for income redistribution.
  • However, India also imbibed core socialism spirit through planned economic development, initiation of land reforms, labor laws, progressive taxation, expansion of education and health and rapid expansion of the public sector.

What is communism? Marxism?

In political and social sciences, communism is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism, anarchism (anarchist communism), and the political ideologies grouped around both. All these hold in common the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism, that in this system, there are two major social classes: the working class – who must work to survive, and who make up a majority of society – and the capitalist class – a minority who derive profit from employing the proletariat, through private ownership of the means of production (the physical and institutional means with which commodities are produced and distributed), and that political, social and economic conflict between these two classes will trigger a fundamental change in the economic system, and by extension a wide-ranging transformation of society.

What are the pros and cons of communism?

Pro and Cons of Communism

Why the USSR collapsed economically?

*The Soviet Union officially fell on December 26 1991 when the USSR was dissolved and the communist-era policies of the region ceased.

*The USSR’s weakened military and economy following World War II saw an initial boost from communist politics and economic direction.

*However, soon this economic system could not compete on the global stage. Along with public dissatisfaction with President Gorbachev’s policies of perestroika and glasnost, the Soviet Union ultimately failed.

*The early strength of the Soviet command economy was its ability to rapidly mobilize resources and direct them in productive activities that emulated those of advanced economies. Yet by adopting existing technologies rather than developing their own, the Soviet Union failed to foster the type of environment that leads to further technological innovation.

*After experiencing a catch-up period with attendant high growth rates, the command economy began to stagnate in the 1970s. At this point, the flaws and inefficiencies of the Soviet system had become apparent. Rather than saving the economy, various piecemeal reforms instead only undermined the economy’s core institutions. Gorbachev’s radical economic liberalization was the final nail in the coffin, with localized interests soon unraveling the fabric of a system founded on centralized control.

Difference in Socialism and Communism

Under communism, there is no such thing as private property. All property is communally owned, and each person receives a portion based on what they need. A strong central government—the state—controls all aspects of economic production, and provides citizens with their basic necessities, including food, housing, medical care and education.

By contrast, under socialism, individuals can still own property. But industrial production, or the chief means of generating wealth, is communally owned and managed by a democratically elected government.

Another key difference between socialism and communism is the means of achieving them. In communism, a violent revolution in which the workers rise up against the middle and upper classes is seen as an inevitable part of achieving a pure communist state. Socialism is a less rigid, more flexible ideology. Its adherents seek change and reform, but insist on making these changes through democratic processes within the existing social and political structure, not overthrowing that structure.



You have 2 cows.

You give one to your neighbor



You have 2 cows.

The State takes both and gives you some milk

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